Transaction Cost 交易费用

世界的格局变了。我们的思想格局世界观变了. 五六十年代,乔冠华那一代,知道弱国无外交。弱变强,靠计谋,靠语言,靠动。

跑步的时候听BBC Radio 4 讲 CHINESE LEGALESE, 商鞅,韩非子,君王一统。法家依法-株连九族,以一儆百;儒家仁治,上皇至人,普世爱人。两家都归于普众的绝对服从。 一人治国,绝对高效。我想,以transaction cost 观之,Williamson里面说到的bounded rationality (理性限度)and opportunism (机会主义)有很强的解释性。比如说,法家的理念,韩非子所设定的达到法制社会的基础是公务人员与农耕脱产,职业就是为民服务,不为私利。但是在缺乏监督机制下,公职人员违法投机的费用并不大,谈不上铤而走险,很容易就变成了利益链的一部分,无法禁止。 那通过加大严打,是不是就提高了投机费用?目前都是心照不宣政治斗争。但在商鞅变法的时候,株连九族,全民皆兵,严厉的军管是把平民立即转为士兵的最有效途径。

Oliver Williamson says, hierarchy is created to serve exploitation, not efficiency. Neoclassical economics (Adam Smith, neoliberal globalisation;  egalitarian outcome is an idealistic or self-deceptive vision. It won’t combat with opportunism. Two places “invisible hand” was referenced in Adam Smith’s writing, as Norm Chomsky comments. 比如说工厂主和员工--neoclassical 会说机器提高了效率,一个工厂由于分工合作,一个人一天只能生产几十个产品在工厂管理下能生产几千上万。Williamson 说,工厂是组织管理,它的作用不是高效,一个一个家庭作坊也可以分工合作,提高效率,产出差不多。工厂的作用是让工人没法自己完成,失去了独立性。只有管理阶层来做合成的必不可缺的角色,别的都是可以取代的小卒。

那我想,我们说要自己做就是要‘小” 也是不合理论的。如果不是因为大,才高效,才必须要放弃所有权,那如何大,而且高效,而且有所有权?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8mxp_wgFWQo

 

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商鞅是平民,舌如簧。韩非子是贵族,口吃,所以有什么都写下来,奠定了法家的理论基础。很有意思。想起Dell Hymes 也是口头表述很差劲儿,把想说的都写下来,结果奠基了社会语言学的理论框架。David Crystal  写过 一本口才说, Gift of the Gab, 主旨是口才可以培训出来。 但是,真的吗?

 

Z’s fb next 10 years

In his hearing before the Senate, Zkbg said that identifying hate speech is the most challenging task. Compared to that, identifying terrorist talk is easier. The linguistic nuances, as he said, are difficult to identify through AI; now it’s done by human and reactively; they need to identify racial slur not only in English but in languages around the world. Fb will focus on automation of identifying hate speech (semantics and pragmatics and discourse) in the next 10 years.

How can linguistics help AI and automation: indexical cycle–discourse pattern-Columbia School big data approach.

What I’ll do: Rmrb–how to identify trends and policies; role of adverbs; naming